On the Evilness of Feature Branching - Where is the Evilness

During this whole article series - On the Evilness of Feature Branching - I have not mentioned a single time anything evil about feature branching. So, where is the evilness? Is it the problems they introduce? Or the reasons teams use them for? Or the compliance reasons that pushes teams into using feature branches? In all truthfulness, it is none of these. But something else.

Update Jan 22nd, 2024: Mention the need for refactoring skills as mentioned by Jay Bazuzi.

Interestingly, the evilness is not so much the problems that are introduced by the practice of feature branching. No, in all honesty, it is not that. It is exceedingly subtle. It makes it even more pernicious for teams and organisations that use feature branches. Consequentially, it becomes pretty grinding for organisations to get away with feature branches.

To tell the truth, the evilness lies surprisingly behind the use of feature branches.

However, it is important to understand that long-lived feature branches are a symptom. The evil hides beneath.

– Alexandru Bolboaca (@alexboly), Nov 8th, 2016

So, what are the real reasons teams use feature branches? These are not necessarily the reasons proponents of feature branching commonly mention.

From my humble experience helping organisations to reach a better IT delivery experience I have noticed the real reasons they use feature branches are in fact:

  1. There is a lack of incremental software engineering skills inside the team.

    That being the case, it becomes very difficult to commit multiple times per day to mainline. Bigger increments require more time to implement. That means fewer commits per day and less feedback.

    As a means to enable incremental engineering skills, it is downright crucial to adopt refactoring skills. Refactoring prepares the code to add new functionality more efficiently, as it decouples the code base. Now, as mentioned in part 4 - The Problems, often teams do not refactor enough or even at all because the many version control branches get in the way of refactoring. To avoid that, we need to refactor on mainline. This requires refactoring in baby steps. Here we are again at incremental software engineering skills. The loop is closed. This is where Expand-Contract plays a vital role.

  2. The codebase is too coupled.

    It prevents most teams from adopting incremental software engineering skills. Accordingly, it becomes pretty difficult to work incrementally with a too-coupled codebase. Any change ripples through all layers of the codebase making sure the application does not work for an extended period. As long as the application does not work, we cannot commit. So, this again means fewer commits and again less feedback.

    Having said that, mature teams with the appropriate skills can work incrementally even so with heavily coupled code bases. It requires to know the proper techniques that will help do that. It mostly comes down to mastering incremental software engineering skills. Once more, adoption of Expand-Contract will be indispensable towards this.

    Hence, this means if a team masters incremental software engineering skills, it can handle a too-coupled codebase and can evolve it into a loosely coupled codebase. Yet, if a team does not master incremental software engineering skills, confronted with a coupled code base, it will be difficult for the team to learn and adopt incremental software engineering skills. In that case, the team is condemned to obliviousness and be trapped.

  3. There is a lack of automated tests.

    It stops teams from having enough confidence they are not introducing any regressions when committing more frequently into mainline. When there is no confidence, teams have to rely on more manual regression testing. In turn, this again holds teams from committing multiple times a day to mainline, again reducing feedback.

  4. Or the build is just too slow.

    It holds teams off from running the build frequently enough to allow them to commit multiple times per day to mainline. Bear in mind, when we say build it involves the execution of all the unit tests. Bear also in mind, that engineers must run a local build before committing to mainline to reach Continuous Integration. So, if the build takes 42 minutes, engineers can only commit every 42 minutes. Conversely, if the build only takes 30 seconds, engineers can commit every 30 seconds. With that in mind, we can easily conceive what an acceleration in feedback this means. This is unseen.

    Alright, 30 seconds might be out of reach, though. But 5 minutes should be the target. Ten minutes should be the maximum.

Because of all the above, we can conclude that feature branching is a treatment for symptoms teams experience because they lack the proper skills and practices. It is not a solution to a root cause. It is a symptom of a set of beliefs that work against agility. As a consequence, feature branches tend to hide the real problems. They hinder teams from improving. Finally, yet importantly, feature branches keep teams in a sub-optimal state.

As opposed, trunk-based development will uncover all these problems immediately. It allows the team to truly do something about this. Inevitably, they can improve!

Final Thoughts

Clearly, success is optional. It is easier for teams to stay in the comfort of feature branches. They do not have to go through the demanding thinking ahead that goes with trunk-based development. It happened to me many times I had to revert changes because I made them in the wrong order or I made too big changes at once. This requires practice, many times. However, trunk-based development drives down stress, fatigue and burnout, together with an unseen reduction of risks. As a side effect, it unleashes incredible quality and delivery performance. Look at that! Why then stay in that comfort zone when it does not provide any benefits other than being comfortable and avoiding hard thinking?

In my humble opinion, feature branching is for the risk-averse, fixed mindset. If teams are aware of that, it is a perfectly acceptable choice. But do not expect delivery performance. Do not push quality and delivery performance expectations on teams. Under those circumstances, teams can only slowly burn out … And this impacts organisational performance.


Jay Bazuzi for suggesting to add the need for refactoring skills.

Black Bottle and Tomatin for the creative support.

The Series

The On the Evilness of Feature Branching series:

  1. A Tale of Two Teams
  2. Why Do Teams Use Feature Branches?
  3. But Compliance!?
  4. The Problems
  5. How To Avoid The Problems?
  6. What about Code Reviews?
  7. Where is the Evilness?